(Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease)

Breathing - difficulty Breathing - wheeze Chest - discomfort 
Chest - feeling of tightness Cough Sputum - yellowish, gray, green

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also known as chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD), and chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), is a lung disease characterized by chronically poor airflow.

The term chronic obstructive pulmonary disease includes two main conditions:

- Emphysema, in which the walls of the air sacs are damaged.  Usually, the only symptom of emphysema is breathing difficulty.

- Chronic bronchitis, in which the lining of the airways is irritated and inflamed.

Most people present both emphysema and chronic bronchitis at the same time.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease typically worsens over time. Symptoms develop slowly. A chronic cough is often the first symptom to occur.

Tobacco smoking, air pollution and genetics are the most common cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.


Spirometry tests the lung capacity and is then used to confirm the diagnosis. Sputum culture can help to identify causes of exacerbation. Sometimes a chest X-ray and complete blood count may be useful to exclude other conditions.

  More information:
COPD Treatment
COPD Healthcare Centers


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